Duchamp completes the following works:
The Bush; Baptism; Nude on Nude;
Draught on the Japanese Apple Tree; Paradise;
Landscape; Apropos of Little Sister;
Yvonne and Magdeleine in Tatters; Sonata;
Dulcinea; Mediocrity; two versions of
Study for 'Portrait of Chess Players';
The Chess Players; Study for 'Portrait of Chess Players'
or For a Game of Chess; Portrait of Chess Players;
two versions of Coffee Mill; Young Man and Girl in Spring;
and Sad Young Man on a Train.
Paints Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2.
The painting is rejected by the Salon des Indépendants.
However, it is shown at a cubist exhibition in Barcelona, Spain,
and in Paris at the Salon de la Section d'Or.
Other works completed this year include:
Portrait of Gustave Candel's Mother; Two Nudes:
One Strong, One Swift; the study for Two Personages and Car;
The King and Queen Traversed by Swift Nudes;
The Bride Stripped by the Bachelors; The King and Queen
Traversed by Nudes at High Speed; The King and Queen Surrounded
by Swift Nudes; The Passage from Virgin to Bride;
Virgin, No. 1; Virgin, No. 2; and Bride.
With Picabia and Apollinaire, attends performance of Raymond Roussel's
Visits Munich, Germany, July-August.
Studies perspective at the Bibliothèque de Sainte-Geneviève
in Paris, where he was employed.
Duchamp exhibits Nude Descending a Staircase
and several other works at the Armory Show in New York.
The reaction to the Nude... brings him fame in America.
Begins studies and notes for
The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even
(often referred to as the Large Glass).
Some of those studies, mostly executed in pencil,
crayon, and/or ink on paper, were:
Bachelor Apparatus (plan);
Bachelor Apparatus (elevation);
The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even;
Cemetery of Uniforms and Liveries, No. 1;
Studies for the Bachelors: Station-master;
and Perspective Drawing for the Water-mill Wheel.
Work on Glider Containing a Water Mill in Neighbouring Metals,
an element of the Large Glass, is begun, using oil paint and
lead wire on a semicircular sheet of glass (it is completed in 1915).
The readymade Bicycle Wheel is created.
Work on Nine Malic Moulds,
an element of the Large Glass, is begun. Like the Large Glass
to follow, it is executed in oil paint, lead wire and sheet lead on glass,
and mounted between two glass plates. It is completed the following year,
and, as the Large Glass would later be, was cracked in 1916.
Other preparatory work for the Large Glass:
Study for the 'Chocolate Grinder, No.2';
Chocolate Grinder, No.2; First Study for the Seives;
Trois stoppages-étalon (Three Standard Stoppages);
and Draught Piston.
Produces the readymade Bottlerack, a.k.a. Bottle Dryer or
Hedgehog; and the rectified readymade Pharmacy.
Produces Réseaux des stoppages (Network of Stoppages), oil
and pencil on canvas. This piece incorporates Three Standard Stoppages
and Young Man and a Girl in Spring (1911) into the overall
Produces To Have the Apprentice in the Sun,
india ink and pencil on music paper.
While on a visit to New York, Duchamp is invited to the home
of Walter and Louise Arensberg. The Arensbergs were soon
to become his friends, patrons and major collectors of his work.
Meets recent New York arrivals Picabia and Gleizes,
and is introduced to Man Ray.
Having previously prepared his studies and notes,
Duchamp begins work on the The Bride Stripped
Bare by her Bachelors, Even.
Produces the readymade In Advance of the Broken Arm,
(a snow shovel).
Writes The, handwritten text in ink on paper in which
the word 'the' is replaced by a star anywhere it occurs.
Meets Beatrice Wood and Henri-Pierre Roché.
Produces the following readymades:
Comb, a grey steel comb with inscription;
With Hidden Noise;
and Traveller's Folding Item, an Underwood Typewriter Cover.
The Society of Independent Artists is formed, with Duchamp
as a founding member, and later a director. He submits the notorious
readymade Fountain to
an Independents exhibition, which is rejected.
As a result, Duchamp and Arensberg both resign from the Society.
Hat Rack, a wooden hat rack hung from the ceiling; and
Trébuchet (Trap), a wood and metal coat rack
nailed to the floor of his studio.
Finishes the rectified readymade Apolinère Enameled,
pencil on cardboard and painted zinc plate (advertisement for
Sapolin enamel paints), which was begun in 1916.
Publishes The Blind Man (with Beatrice Wood
and Henrí Roché), and the sole issue of Rongwrong.
Work on drawings for the Large Glass continues. Completes his last work on canvas,
Produces To be Looked at (from the Other Side of the Glass)
with One Eye, Close to, for Almost an Hour, oil paint,
silver leaf, lead wire, and a two magnifying glasses on (cracked)
glass support, mounted between two glass panes in a wooden frame,
on a painted wood base.
Visits Buenos Aires, Argentina. While there,
he sends instructions to his sister Suzanne for
the creation of the Unhappy Readymade, a geometry
book hung from a balcony until deteriorated by the elements.
Returns to Paris, attends meetings of the Dada group which counts amongst its
members Tristan Tzara and André Breton.
Produces the readymades:
50 cc of Paris Air;
Tzanck Cheque; and L.H.O.O.Q..
Completes Handmade Stereopticon Slides,
a rectified readymade, which was begun in 1918.
Pencil on stereoscopic slides, in cardboard mount.
On his return to New York, Duchamp presents Walter Arensberg
with 50cc of Paris Air.
Rotary Glass Plates (Precision Optics) is constructed.
This is an "optical machine" consisting of five motorized painted glass plates,
which, when operated, create a 3-dimensional optical effect to the viewer.
When first activated, it flew apart and almost decapitated Man Ray,
who was attempting to photograph the work.
Man Ray photographs the dust-covered Large Glass after it had
been lying flat for approximately six months. The resulting image was titled
Dust Breeding. (Duchamp later removed most of the accumulated dust
from the surface and varnished over the remaining dust in the area
known as the seives or parasols).
Produces study for the Large Glass: Oculist Witnesses,
using a pointed instrument on the reverse of a sheet of carbon paper.
Duchamp, Katherine Dreier and Man Ray form the first
museum of modern art in the United States, the Société Anonyme, Inc.
Duchamp's female alter ego, is "born".